- Reflection mediates between experience and learning (Dewey, 1933). Ponder, review and question experiences so as to adapt and change future behaviour.
- John Wooden put a heavy focus on reflective practice. Coach Bias deliberately sought to change and improve coaching by analysing videos 7 years apart. It showed increased efficiency of coaching behaviour (less talk). Also, more effective teaching as pre-instruction decreased, concurrent instruction increased and post-instruction decreased = more organised and more immediate skill feedback.
- Ermeling (2012) 4 key features of reflective practice in teaching contexts:
1. Identify and define important and recursive instructional problems specific to local context
2. Prepare and implement detailed instructional plans
3. Utilize evidence to drive reflection, analysis and next steps
4. Persistently work towards detectable improvement.
- Teach rather than react.
- Coach Bias' improvements:
1. Fixed length practice, start by explaining objective.
2. Write a plan and stick to it. Plan better and implement changes next day.
3. Transition between drills - no wasted time
4. Transition between drills - equipment ready to go
5. Drills 8min max.
- Coach Bias' changes to his instructional talk:
1. Decrease number of coaching statements, less interruption.
2. Keep corrections to 10 seconds max
3. Be specific in teaching behaviour.
- Implement conditioning into elements of game
- Practice as we play applies to instructional language too - same type of message and tone.
- Measure self by quality of teaching, not results.
Gallimore and Tharp, (2004). 'What a coach can teach a teacher, 1975-2004: Reflections and Reanalysis of John Wooden's teaching practices', The Sport Psychologist, 18, 119-137.
- Wooden's teaching points "short, punctuated, numerous"
- Practice was highly organised, constant activity and high intensity.
- Planning essential to be efficient and concise.
- Praise better when specific and information, and most effect if focus on effort and mastery (Stipek, 1993).
- 4 laws of learning: Exploration, Demonstration, Imitation, Repetition.
- Master fundamentals to allow creativity.
Hodge, K., Henry, G. & Smith, W. (2014). 'A case study of excellence in elite sport: Motivational climate in a world champion team', The Sport Psychologist, 28(1), 60-74.
- In sport, Coach typically regarded as most influential significant other in athlete experience (Bartholomew, Ntoumis and Thogersen-Ntoumanis, 2010; Pensgaard and Roberts, 2002).
- Contextual environment (climate created by coach) influential on athlete motivation and behaviour (Gagne, Ryan and Bargmann 2003).
- Key findings for motivational climate in elite teams:
1. Elite Olympians: importance of coach as creator of MC, and support of Mastery climate (Pensgaard and Roberts, 2002)
2. Elite soccer: Prefer positive feedback and democratice coach behaviour (Hoigaard et al, 2006)
3. High perception of master climate and low performance climate associated with increased perception of task cohesion and collective efficacy (Heuze et al, 2006)
4. Strong master climate associated with greater performance improvement and satisfaction (Balaguer et al, 2002)
5. To decreease player perception of distress, focus on mastery climate for elite athletes (Pensgaard and Roberts, 2002).
- Study with NZ All Blacks generated 8 main themes:
1. CRITICAL TURNING POINT
- Drinking issue, so meeting Captain/VC/Coaches to create leadership group. This increased accountability, more ownership and dual management. Coaches' desire to foster autonomy.
- After 2007 RWC, sought feedback from previous NZ coaches. Looked at reasons for failure in past campaigns and planned strategically to try and combat past errors.
2. FLEXIBLE AND EVOLVING
- Evolving coaching style
- Smith changed approach depending on situation and goal - sometimes tough and directive, others empowering and encouraging. Depends on needs of players, group awareness, time in week/season etc.
3. DUAL-MANAGEMENT STYLE
- Dual-management by players and coches. Players feedback on training intensity and game plan.
- Reminiscent of Autonomy-Supportive Coaching (Lyons, Rynne and Mallett, 2012), Emotionally Intelligent Coaching (Chan and Mallett, 2011) and Transformational Leadership (Callow, Smith, Hardy, Arthur and Hardy, 2009).
4. BETTER PEOPLE MAKE BETTER ALL BLACKS
- "What you do shouts so loudly that I can't hear what you're saying"
- Link to on and off the field decision-making so all influenced selection.
- Empowering he players, ownership and accountability.
- To problem solve on the pitch, do it off the pitch = Analyse self/opposition, present to squad
- reflects Transformational Leadership
- Leadership Group / On Field LEadership / Season Planning
7. EXPECTATION OF EXCELLENCE
8. TEAM COHESION : COACHES AND PLAYERS
- Horizontal coaching structure: give other coaches ownership too
- Alignment and clarity
- "Keep it fresh", coaches swap roles and mix up training etc
- Enjoyment and fun
AUTONOMY SUPPORTIVE MOTIVATIONAL CLIMATE (Mageau and Vallerand, 2003)
- athlete presented with choice and rationale for tasks, feelings acknowledged, opportunities to show initiative and independent work.
- Empowering, noncontrolling competence feedback (increase strengths, not just decrease weaknesses)
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP (Bass and Riggio, 2006)
- Build relationship with players based on personal, emotional and inspirational exchanges with goal to develop player to their fullest
- Arthur et al (2012) transformational leadership model in elite sport:
1. Inspirational VIsion
2. Support to achieve it
3. Provide Challenge to achieve it
Also: Individual consideration; inspirational motivation; intellectual stimulation; foster acceptance of group goals; high performance expectations; appropriate role modelling
- Emotional Intellgence and Character Building.